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很多营养补充剂对预防疾病是无效的

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陆丰在线 发表于 2019-9-16 18:41 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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visible;clear: none;text-align: justify;letter-spacing: 0.544px;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong style="max-width: 100%;letter-spacing: 0.544px;text-align: center;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="max-width: 100%;line-height: 21.3333px;min-height: 0px;background-image: none;background-clip: border-box;background-position: 0% 0%;background-repeat: repeat;background-size: auto;border-width: 0px;border-style: none;border-color: rgb(123, 12, 0);bottom: auto;height: auto;left: auto;max-height: none;min-width: 0px;text-decoration-style: solid;text-decoration-color: rgb(123, 12, 0);top: auto;z-index: auto;visibility: visible;clear: none;letter-spacing: 0.544px;font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, &quot;PingFang SC&quot;, &quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei UI&quot;, 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break-word !important;"><strong style="max-width: 100%;letter-spacing: 0.544px;text-align: center;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="max-width: 100%;line-height: 21.3333px;min-height: 0px;background-image: none;background-clip: border-box;background-position: 0% 0%;background-repeat: repeat;background-size: auto;border-width: 0px;border-style: none;border-color: rgb(123, 12, 0);bottom: auto;height: auto;left: auto;max-height: none;min-width: 0px;text-decoration-style: solid;text-decoration-color: rgb(123, 12, 0);top: auto;z-index: auto;visibility: visible;clear: none;letter-spacing: 0.544px;font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, &quot;PingFang SC&quot;, &quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei UI&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-align: justify;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong style="max-width: 100%;letter-spacing: 0.544px;font-family: &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif;text-align: left;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="max-width: 100%;line-height: 21.3333px;min-height: 0px;background-image: none;background-clip: border-box;background-position: 0% 0%;background-repeat: repeat;background-size: auto;border-width: 0px;border-style: none;border-color: rgb(123, 12, 0);bottom: auto;height: auto;left: auto;max-height: none;min-width: 0px;text-decoration-style: solid;text-decoration-color: rgb(123, 12, 0);top: auto;z-index: auto;visibility: visible;clear: none;text-align: justify;letter-spacing: 0.544px;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong style="max-width: 100%;letter-spacing: 0.544px;text-align: center;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="max-width: 100%;line-height: 21.3333px;letter-spacing: 0.544px;color: rgb(123, 12, 0);min-height: 0px;background-image: none;background-clip: border-box;background-position: 0% 0%;background-repeat: repeat;background-size: auto;border-width: 0px;border-style: none;border-color: rgb(123, 12, 0);bottom: auto;height: auto;left: auto;max-height: none;min-width: 0px;text-decoration-style: solid;text-decoration-color: rgb(123, 12, 0);top: auto;z-index: auto;visibility: visible;clear: none;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">▲</span></strong></span></strong></span></strong></span></strong></span></strong></span></strong></span></strong></span></strong></span>&nbsp;<span style="max-width: 100%;font-size: 12px;color: rgb(178, 178, 178);box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;">(IC photo/图)</span><br style="max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"></section><p style="margin-right: 8px;margin-left: 8px;max-width: 100%;min-height: 1em;font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, &quot;PingFang SC&quot;, &quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei UI&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;letter-spacing: 0.544px;white-space: normal;background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"></p><section style="margin-right: 8px;margin-left: 8px;max-width: 100%;font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, &quot;PingFang SC&quot;, &quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei UI&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;letter-spacing: 0.544px;white-space: normal;background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"></section><section class="" style="padding: 8px;max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box;font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, &quot;PingFang SC&quot;, &quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei UI&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;letter-spacing: 0.544px;white-space: normal;background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section class="" style="max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section class="" style="padding: 8px;max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box;font-family: inherit;letter-spacing: 0.544px;text-decoration: inherit;line-height: 25.6px;border-color: rgb(101, 0, 0);border-left-width: 6px;border-left-style: solid;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section class="" style="max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section style="margin-right: 8px;margin-left: 8px;max-width: 100%;min-height: 1em;font-family: inherit;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="max-width: 100%;font-size: 14px;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="max-width: 100%;color: rgb(136, 136, 136);line-height: 1.4;">全文共</span><span style="max-width: 100%;color: rgb(123, 12, 0);line-height: 1.4;"><strong style="max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="max-width: 100%;line-height: 1.4;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong style="max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">2486</strong></span></strong></span><span style="max-width: 100%;line-height: 1.4;color: rgb(136, 136, 136);">字</span><span style="max-width: 100%;color: rgb(136, 136, 136);line-height: 1.4;">,阅读大约需要</span><span style="max-width: 100%;line-height: 1.4;color: rgb(123, 12, 0);"><strong style="max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">6</strong></span><span style="max-width: 100%;color: rgb(136, 136, 136);line-height: 1.4;">分钟</span></span><span style="max-width: 100%;color: rgb(136, 136, 136);line-height: 1.4;font-size: 14px;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"></span></section><section style="margin-right: 8px;margin-left: 8px;max-width: 100%;min-height: 1em;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"></section><ul class=" list-paddingleft-2" style="list-style-type: none;margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><li><section style="margin-right: 8px;margin-left: 8px;max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="max-width: 100%;font-family: inherit;letter-spacing: 0.544px;text-decoration: inherit;font-size: 14px;color: rgb(136, 136, 136);box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;">发表在《内科医学年鉴》的一项研究再次指出,许多营养补充剂对降低全因死亡率和心血管疾病风险等没有明显效果,而且同时补钙和维生素D还可能增加中风的风险。</span><span style="max-width: 100%;font-family: inherit;letter-spacing: 0.544px;text-decoration: inherit;color: rgb(136, 136, 136);font-size: 16px;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;"></span><br style="max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;"></section></li></ul><p style="max-width: 100%;min-height: 1em;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"></p><section style="margin-right: 8px;margin-left: 8px;max-width: 100%;min-height: 1em;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="max-width: 100%;font-size: 14px;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong style="max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="max-width: 100%;color: rgb(123, 12, 0);box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong style="max-width: 100%;font-size: 1em;line-height: 1.4;font-family: inherit;text-decoration: inherit;color: rgb(136, 136, 136);box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="max-width: 100%;color: rgb(123, 12, 0);box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong style="max-width: 100%;font-family: inherit;font-size: 1em;letter-spacing: 0.544px;text-decoration: inherit;line-height: 1.4;color: rgb(136, 136, 136);box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="max-width: 100%;color: rgb(123, 12, 0);box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">本文首发于南方周末 未经授权 不得转载</span></strong>&nbsp;</span></strong></span></strong></span></section></section></section></section></section><p style="text-align: right;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14px;">文 | 南方周末记者 王江涛</span></strong></p><p style="text-align: right;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14px;">责任编辑 | 朱力远</span></strong></p><p><br></p><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">营养补充剂又称膳食补充剂,主要是用来弥补人们正常饮食中特定营养素缺乏的补充品,包括维生素、矿物质、氨基酸等。总的来说,有两种常见的使用目的,一个是满足身体功能的基本需要,再者是降低疾病风险。前者的适用场景,比如孕妇、儿童、老人等因特定生理期而需要更多外部营养补充。后者,则很多是出于对一些疾病的担忧而提前预防的养生举措。</span></section><p><br></p><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">最近,《内科医学年鉴》(</span><span style="font-size: 14px;color: rgb(178, 178, 178);">Annals of Internal Medicine</span><span style="font-size: 16px;">)发表的研究再次指出,许多营养补充剂对降低死亡率和心血管疾病等没有明显效果。</span></section><p><br></p><section style="margin-right: 8px;margin-left: 8px;max-width: 100%;font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, &quot;PingFang SC&quot;, &quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei UI&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;letter-spacing: 0.544px;white-space: normal;background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="max-width: 100%;font-size: 16px;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section class="" style="padding-right: 2px;padding-bottom: 2px;padding-left: 2px;max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box;font-family: inherit;letter-spacing: 0.544px;text-decoration: inherit;display: inline-block;border-color: rgb(95, 1, 1);border-bottom-width: 2px;border-bottom-style: solid;line-height: 1;text-align: center;color: rgb(255, 255, 255);word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section class="" style="padding: 0.3em 0.4em;max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box;display: inline-block;min-width: 1.8em;min-height: 1.6em;border-radius: 80% 100% 90% 20%;line-height: 1;font-family: inherit;background-color: rgb(95, 1, 1);word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section class="" style="max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">1</span></section></section><span style="margin-left: 0.4em;max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box;display: inline-block;line-height: 1.4;font-weight: bolder;text-decoration: inherit;color: rgb(95, 1, 1);word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><p style="margin-right: 8px;margin-left: 8px;max-width: 100%;min-height: 1em;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="max-width: 100%;font-weight: bolder;text-decoration: inherit;font-family: inherit;letter-spacing: 0.544px;font-size: 16px;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">只有个别有效</span></p></span></section></span></section><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><br></section><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">2019年8月,这项来自美国西弗吉尼亚大学等机构的综述研究结论认为,维生素A、B、C、D、E、B6、钙、叶酸、铁等对降低全因死亡率和心血管疾病风险都没有什么效果,而且,同时补钙和维生素D还可能增加中风的风险。</span></section><p><br></p><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">只有比较低可能性的证据表明,欧米伽3长链多不饱和脂肪酸(</span><span style="font-size: 14px;color: rgb(178, 178, 178);">omega-3 LC-PUFA</span><span style="font-size: 16px;"> )对降低心肌梗死和冠心病可能有益,补充叶酸对预防中风有一定作用。食物中的欧米伽3含量较多的主要是一些多脂肪的鱼,相较而言,许多水果、蔬菜中都含有叶酸。</span></section><p><br></p><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">对降低全因死亡率和心血管疾病死亡率效果比较明显的只有一种饮食干预措施:少吃盐。研究发现,高血压的人少吃盐可以降低心血管疾病的风险,血压正常的人少吃盐也可以降低全因死亡率。</span></section><p><br></p><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">这些结论着实令不少人感到惊讶,许多国际媒体都对此进行了报道,而研究本身也在营养品行业内引发了一些争议。更关键的是,这样的结果,可能会让很多正在补充营养的人感到无所适从,而按照该研究主要作者医学博士萨菲·卡恩(</span><span style="font-size: 14px;color: rgb(178, 178, 178);">Safi U. Khan</span><span style="font-size: 16px;">)的观点,那些希望通过吃补品改善心血管健康的人只不过在浪费自己的钱而已。</span></section><p><br></p><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">这些结论虽然与人们的经验出入较大,但其实也不是全新的发现。早在2019年5月,《内科医学年鉴》就曾发表一项基于美国人的长期随访研究,得出过类似的结论:营养补充剂与降低死亡率没有什么关系。</span></section><p><br></p><section style="margin-right: 8px;margin-left: 8px;max-width: 100%;font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, &quot;PingFang SC&quot;, &quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei UI&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;letter-spacing: 0.544px;white-space: normal;background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="max-width: 100%;font-size: 16px;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section class="" style="padding-right: 2px;padding-bottom: 2px;padding-left: 2px;max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box;font-family: inherit;letter-spacing: 0.544px;text-decoration: inherit;display: inline-block;border-color: rgb(95, 1, 1);border-bottom-width: 2px;border-bottom-style: solid;line-height: 1;text-align: center;color: rgb(255, 255, 255);word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section class="" style="padding: 0.3em 0.4em;max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box;display: inline-block;min-width: 1.8em;min-height: 1.6em;border-radius: 80% 100% 90% 20%;line-height: 1;font-family: inherit;background-color: rgb(95, 1, 1);word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section class="" style="max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">2</span></section></section><span style="margin-left: 0.4em;max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box;display: inline-block;line-height: 1.4;font-weight: bolder;text-decoration: inherit;color: rgb(95, 1, 1);word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><p style="margin-right: 8px;margin-left: 8px;max-width: 100%;min-height: 1em;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="max-width: 100%;font-weight: bolder;text-decoration: inherit;font-family: inherit;letter-spacing: 0.544px;font-size: 16px;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">如何看待营养品</span></p></span></section></span></section><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><br></section><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">相比最新研究主要阐述的是试验结果,基于美国人的观察性研究,则通过对实际生活中的成年人的调查,发现了更多营养素与健康关系的细节。比如发现适度摄入维生素A、维生素K、镁、锌和铜的人,全因死亡率和心血管疾病的死亡率会更低,但这种关联只限于从食物中摄入上述营养,而非营养补充剂。</span></section><p><br></p><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">同时还发现,过量补钙的话,癌症死亡风险会升高。而那些喜欢用营养补充剂的人,主要是一些收入、教育水平相对较高的人,这些人的整体生活方式也更健康。</span></section><p><br></p><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">这些都显示,对于营养补充剂之于人身体的效果,目前应该谨慎地去看待。一方面,没有充分的证据表明营养补充剂对降低全因死亡率等有积极的作用。另一方面,有一定证据指出补充不当,反而会增加健康风险。</span></section><p><br></p><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">而且,现在的证据整体可靠性偏低,观察性研究中可能造成混杂的因素较多,而类似试验中,试验样本自身状态的差异可能对结果影响较大。且无论积极作用,还是负面作用,背后的具体机制都还不是特别清楚。</span></section><p><br></p><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">证据比较强的不是任何营养品,而是饮食干预手段“少吃盐”。研究者认为少吃盐对心血管疾病的益处主要是通过降低血压这一机制实现的,高血压作为一个常见的心血管疾病风险因素,少吃盐的话,无论性别和种族,收缩压、舒张压都可能因此降低,从而降低中风和冠心病的风险。</span></section><p><br></p><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">考虑到中国人吃盐是出了名的多,这条结论很有现实意义。而另一条关于叶酸的结论也与中国人有关。西弗吉尼亚大学等机构的科学家对277项试验分析后发现,叶酸与降低中风风险之间所呈现出的关系,主要是因为一项在中国的试验结果驱动的。</span></section><p><br></p><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">但补充叶酸对中国人预防中风效果很明显,可能是因为在中国,缺乏对食物中叶酸流失的防御,导致中国人从食物中获取的叶酸有限,而在那些可以从食物中获取足够叶酸的国家,这一结论就不一定适用。</span></section><p><br></p><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">叶酸虽然在食物中来源很多,但易受光、热影响而被破坏,中国人吃菜都喜欢炒着吃,很少生吃,可能会破坏其中的叶酸成分。</span></section><p><br></p><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">这些都提示着,相关研究的结论目前仅供参考,仍有待更多研究去确证相关情况。而缺乏相关专业知识的人更是不宜随意补充营养,寻求医生的建议是十分必要的。</span></section><p><br></p><section style="margin-right: 8px;margin-left: 8px;max-width: 100%;font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, &quot;PingFang SC&quot;, &quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei UI&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;letter-spacing: 0.544px;white-space: normal;background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="max-width: 100%;font-size: 16px;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section class="" style="padding-right: 2px;padding-bottom: 2px;padding-left: 2px;max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box;font-family: inherit;letter-spacing: 0.544px;text-decoration: inherit;display: inline-block;border-color: rgb(95, 1, 1);border-bottom-width: 2px;border-bottom-style: solid;line-height: 1;text-align: center;color: rgb(255, 255, 255);word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section class="" style="padding: 0.3em 0.4em;max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box;display: inline-block;min-width: 1.8em;min-height: 1.6em;border-radius: 80% 100% 90% 20%;line-height: 1;font-family: inherit;background-color: rgb(95, 1, 1);word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section class="" style="max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">3</span></section></section><span style="margin-left: 0.4em;max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box;display: inline-block;line-height: 1.4;font-weight: bolder;text-decoration: inherit;color: rgb(95, 1, 1);word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><p style="margin-right: 8px;margin-left: 8px;max-width: 100%;min-height: 1em;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="max-width: 100%;font-weight: bolder;text-decoration: inherit;font-family: inherit;letter-spacing: 0.544px;font-size: 16px;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">营养补充剂不比药物</span></p></span></section></span></section><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><br></section><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">其实,不仅是科学研究层面认识不太清楚,实际政府监管中,对营养补充剂一般也是特别对待。虽然它们有的是药片状,有的装在胶囊里,但监管上与药品截然不同。</span></section><p><br></p><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">比如,美国食品药品监督管理局明确告知公众,它们无权在营养补充剂上市之前去检查这些产品的安全性和有效性,在进入市场之前,制造商和经销商自己为它们产品的安全性负责。除非是产品中将要包含一种新的原料,这时制造商要在上市之前主动通知监管部门去检查安全性,即便如此,监管部门也不检查营养补充剂的效果。</span></section><p><br></p><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">对中国来说,早在2014年的时候,原国家食品药品监督管理总局就曾发布过一个关于营养素补充剂管理规定的征求意见稿,其中除了强调要遵循多项营养素名单、质量管理规定外,还指出产品技术要求中功效成分指标值范围应当科学合理。关于注意事项,当时则试图规定,应当明确“本品不能代替药物,不宜超过推荐量或与同类营养素补充剂同时食用”。补硒的产品应当标明“高硒地区人群不宜食用”等内容。</span></section><p><br></p><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">从这些监管方式也可以看出,营养补充剂的监管很难像药品那样针对效果划定一个明确的标准。这也是其定位中的一个重要特点,一般来说,如果营养充足的话,就不要用补充剂,能通过食物补上的也没必要用补充剂。“纯天然”不意味着就安全,“营养品”不意味着对健康就无害。</span></section><p><br></p><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">根据2017年中国营养学会的调查,中国有超过54%的成年人在过去一年中曾吃过营养补充剂,这一数字在2002年中国居民营养与健康状况调查中,仅为5.1%,且补的最多的还是钙。可以说,近15年间,情况发生了巨大的变化。但一些人在吃的时候,搞不清药品、营养补充剂、保健品、食品等概念的情况还比较突出,乱象也时有发生,尤其是在营养补充剂使用率最高的老年人群体中。</span></section><p><br></p><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">尽管最新研究的证据并不算特别充分,但谨慎地使用营养补充剂这一基本原则,应该引起更多人重视。</span><div align="center"><img class="" data-ratio="0.95" data-w="20" src="https://www.lf0660.com/template/lf/deancss/logo.png" style="font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, &quot;PingFang SC&quot;, &quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei UI&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;letter-spacing: 0.544px;font-size: 16px;color: rgb(63, 62, 63);text-align: left;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;visibility: visible !important;width: 20px !important;" _width="20px"></div></section><p style="max-width: 100%;min-height: 1em;font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, &quot;PingFang SC&quot;, &quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei UI&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;letter-spacing: 0.544px;white-space: normal;background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"></p><section style="margin-right: 8px;margin-left: 8px;max-width: 100%;font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, &quot;PingFang SC&quot;, &quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei UI&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;letter-spacing: 0.544px;white-space: normal;min-height: 1em;background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);text-align: center;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="max-width: 100%;font-size: 16px;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">&nbsp;</span></section><section style="margin-right: 8px;margin-left: 8px;max-width: 100%;font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, &quot;PingFang SC&quot;, &quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei UI&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;letter-spacing: 0.544px;white-space: normal;background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"></section><section style="margin-right: 8px;margin-left: 8px;max-width: 100%;font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, &quot;PingFang SC&quot;, &quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei UI&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;white-space: normal;min-height: 1em;background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);width: 677px;font-size: 16px;color: rgb(114, 114, 114);letter-spacing: 2px;text-align: center;font-weight: bold;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">其他人都在看:</span></section><section style="margin-right: 8px;margin-left: 8px;max-width: 100%;font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, &quot;PingFang SC&quot;, &quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei UI&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;letter-spacing: 0.544px;white-space: normal;background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section style="margin-top: 10px;max-width: 100%;letter-spacing: 0.544px;display: flex;justify-content: center;align-items: center;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section data-width="100%" style="margin-top: -20px;max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box;width: 329.609px;border-bottom: 1px solid rgb(114, 114, 114);word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"></section><section 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BlinkMacSystemFont, &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, &quot;PingFang SC&quot;, &quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei UI&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;letter-spacing: 0.544px;white-space: normal;background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);text-align: center;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span class="js_jump_icon h5_image_link" data-positionback="static" style="max-width: 100%;line-height: 0;top: auto;left: auto;right: auto;bottom: auto;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><div align="center"><img class="rich_pages " data-ratio="0.321" data-s="300,640" data-type="png" data-w="2000" src="https://www.lf0660.com/template/lf/deancss/logo.png" style="box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;visibility: visible !important;width: 677px !important;" _width="677px"></div></span></section><section style="margin-right: 8px;margin-left: 8px;max-width: 100%;font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, &quot;PingFang SC&quot;, &quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei UI&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;letter-spacing: 0.544px;white-space: normal;background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);text-align: center;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span class="js_jump_icon h5_image_link" data-positionback="static" style="max-width: 100%;line-height: 0;top: auto;left: auto;right: auto;bottom: auto;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><div align="center"><img class="rich_pages " data-ratio="0.31822709163346613" data-s="300,640" data-type="png" data-w="2008" src="https://www.lf0660.com/template/lf/deancss/logo.png" style="box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;visibility: visible !important;width: 677px !important;" _width="677px"></div></span></section><section style="margin-right: 8px;margin-left: 8px;max-width: 100%;font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, &quot;PingFang SC&quot;, &quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei UI&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;letter-spacing: 0.544px;white-space: normal;background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);text-align: center;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span class="js_jump_icon h5_image_link" data-positionback="static" style="max-width: 100%;line-height: 0;top: auto;left: auto;right: auto;bottom: auto;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><div align="center"><img class="rich_pages " data-ratio="0.32" data-s="300,640" data-type="png" data-w="2000" src="https://www.lf0660.com/template/lf/deancss/logo.png" style="box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;visibility: visible !important;width: 677px !important;" _width="677px"></div></span></section><section style="margin-right: 8px;margin-left: 8px;max-width: 100%;font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, &quot;PingFang SC&quot;, &quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei UI&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;letter-spacing: 0.544px;white-space: normal;background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);text-align: center;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><div align="center"><img class="" data-ratio="0.40816326530612246" data-w="49" title="动态分割图" width="auto" src="https://www.lf0660.com/template/lf/deancss/logo.png" style="letter-spacing: 0.544px;display: inline;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;visibility: visible !important;width: 96px !important;" _width="96px"></div><br style="max-width: 100%;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"></section><section style="margin-right: 8px;margin-left: 8px;max-width: 100%;font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, &quot;PingFang SC&quot;, &quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei UI&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;letter-spacing: 0.544px;white-space: normal;background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);min-height: 1em;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><div align="center"><img class="__bg_gif " data-copyright="0" data-ratio="0.5984375" data-type="gif" data-w="640" src="https://www.lf0660.com/template/lf/deancss/logo.png" style="box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;visibility: visible !important;width: 640px !important;" _width="640px"></div></section><p style="max-width: 100%;min-height: 1em;font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, &quot;PingFang SC&quot;, &quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei UI&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;letter-spacing: 0.544px;white-space: normal;background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);text-align: center;box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span class="js_jump_icon h5_image_link" data-positionback="static" style="top: auto;left: auto;margin: 0px;right: auto;bottom: auto;"><div align="center"><img class="rich_pages " data-ratio="0.6666666666666666" data-s="300,640" data-type="jpeg" data-w="600" src="https://www.lf0660.com/template/lf/deancss/logo.png" style="box-sizing: border-box !important;word-wrap: break-word !important;overflow-wrap: break-word !important;visibility: visible !important;width: 600px !important;top: auto;left: auto;right: auto;bottom: auto;margin: 0px;" _width="600px"></div></span></p><section style="margin-left: 8px;margin-right: 8px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;"></span><br></section>
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